The Wikipedia article of the day for July 19, 2016 is Pedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil.
Pedro Afonso (1848–1850) was the Prince Imperial and heir apparent to the throne of the Empire of Brazil. Born at the Palace of São Cristóvão in Rio de Janeiro, he was the second son and youngest child of Emperor Pedro II and Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies, and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. His aunt was the reigning Queen of Portugal, Dona Maria II. Pedro Afonso was seen as vital to the future viability of the monarchy, which had been put in jeopardy by the death of his older brother Afonso almost three years earlier. Pedro Afonso's early death from fever at the age of one devastated the Emperor, and the imperial couple had no further children. Pedro Afonso's older sister Isabel became heiress, but Pedro II was unconvinced that a woman could ever be accepted as monarch by the ruling elite. He excluded Isabel from matters of state, and failed to provide training for her possible role as empress. With no surviving male children, the Emperor started to believe that the imperial line was destined to end with his own death.